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A Brief NLM的历史


皇冠app官方版成立于1836年,是美国陆军军医办公室内的一个小型医学书籍和期刊收藏中心. 1962年,该收藏转移到美国国立卫生研究院贝塞斯达, 医学校区, it was housed at these locations:

  • (1862-1866) Riggs Bank Building at 15th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue
  • (1866-1887) 福特剧院 at 513 10th Street NW
  • (1887-1962)位于第7街和独立大道西南的陆军医学博物馆和图书馆大楼

The Early Years: 1836-1862


The National Library of Medicine began quite humbly, as a few books in the office of the Surgeon General of the Army. 1836年卫生局局长办公室的开支预算中首次提出了为图书馆拨款的要求——150美元用于购买医学书籍, 1840年,图书馆出版了第一本“图书馆图书目录”." As historian Wyndham D. Miles noted in his 1982 history of NLM, 所有的藏品(列在1840年的目录中)都可以放在一个四书架的书架上, shoulder high and 7 or 8 feet wide." Although the collection grew under Thomas Lawson, Surgeon General from 1836 to 1861, 如果一个人接受约瑟夫J. 伍德沃德, 他从1862年到1864年在卫生局局长办公室任职:“在内战末期,华盛顿没有任何一家医学图书馆的名字.


A New Building, and Billings Comes Aboard: 1862-1866

Photo of Rigg's Bank Building 15th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
华盛顿特区 华盛顿特区

In 1862, 卫生局局长的图书馆被搬到了宾夕法尼亚路15号的里格斯银行大楼, NW, in 华盛顿特区. 图书馆在1864年出版了第一本印刷目录,列出了大约2100册. 一年之后, 随着军队内战期间临时医院的关闭和图书馆的合并, the Surgeon General's office got a windfall of medical books and journals.

1865年1月, 陆军召来了27岁的外科医生兼图书爱好者约翰·肖·比林斯中尉,让他负责迅速增加的图书收藏. His appointment marked a turning point in the development of the library. 在6年内, the library had 13,000 volumes and by 1873 the collection included 25,000本书和15本书,000年的小册子. By 1880, the number of books had doubled to 50,000 and the number of pamphlets had quadrupled to 60,000.

An enthusiastic book collector, Billings wrote physicians, librarians and editors to request donations of books, and even accosted State Department officials, asking them to bring back foreign medical works from their trips abroad. Before resigning from the Army in 1895, 比林斯把这些藏书变成了世界上最大的医学图书馆, covering the medical literature of virtually all eras and nations. Its holdings in 1895 included 116,847 books and 191,598 pamphlets.

约翰·肖·比林斯(John Shaw Billings)在许多方面帮助制定了今天的皇冠app官方版的发展蓝图. By the end of his tenure, and with his encouragement, books and journals were regularly going out on loan to physicians, and thousands of reference inquiries were being answered annually.


Growth and Development: 1866-1887

Photo of 福特剧院 福特剧院
513 10th Street, NW

On April 14, 1865, U.S. 亚伯拉罕·林肯(Abraham Lincoln)总统在福特剧院(福特剧院)观看《皇冠app官方版的美国亲戚》(Our American Cousin)时被暗杀. 市民们如此激烈地抗议,反对进一步的制作,以至于政府接管了剧院,并在第二年购买了它,用来存放军队的医疗记录, museum and library. In the years that the library's collections were kept at Ford's, the first eight volumes of the Index Catalogue appeared. Launched in 1880 and the brainchild of John Shaw Billings, 这一不朽的工作是一个结合作者和主题目录的图书馆不断增长的专著和期刊收藏. William Welch (1850-1934), 他是著名的病理学教授,也是约翰霍普金斯医学院的首任院长, 是美国对19世纪医学的最大贡献.

福特剧院时代是卫生局局长图书馆飞速发展和变革的时期. 一种雄心勃勃的精神在这里生根发芽,早在1871年,卫生局局长约瑟夫K. 巴恩斯和比林斯开始计划将这些藏书发展成为“皇冠app官方版”.“巴恩斯, 这意味着图书馆将包含“所有在这个国家出版的医学书籍,以及所有与公共卫生和国家医学有关的工作”,“那将是, in Billings' words, 在所有与军事组织有关的出版物中尽可能完整地发表, 医学, and the allied sciences," and would be "an universal library of references.“直到现在, the library was know to Army physicians, 那些走过福特三楼的人,以及那些口口相传听说过福特三楼的人. 现在,比林斯开始告诉美国医学界,这个图书馆已经存在,而且将为所有医生提供服务.

1879年,比林斯开始了第一个期刊文章的综合索引——医学索引. 灵感来自于他自己的经历:当时他正在写关于癫痫的论文, 他因缺乏医学文献的主题索引而灰心丧气. NLM的在线数据库MEDLINE就是该出版物的电子版. MEDLINE contains over 14 million references dating back to the mid-1950s.


More Services, More Technology: 1887-1962

Photo of Army Medical Library Army Medical Museum and Library Building
7th Street and Independence Avenue, SW

从1887年到1962年, the Library of the Surgeon General's Office, officially renamed the Army Medical Library in 1922, was located with its sister agency, the Army Medical Museum, in this three-story, red brick building that Billings had designed. (The Hirshhorn Museum now stands on the site, on the Mall 在华盛顿.) Inspired by Billings' vision of a great national institution, 图书馆开始扩大服务,以满足卫生专业人员的信息需求. 到1880年代, 书籍和期刊定期被借给全国各地的医生, as technology improved, microfilming and photocopying of literature for patrons followed. 历史藏品在这一时期显著增加,并被运往克利夫兰, Ohio for safekeeping during World War II. 图书馆在7年级和独立年级的时候也迈出了第一步,进入了计算机时代, launching a mechanized system for producing its publications in 1958.


Photo of John F Kennedy speaking about the NLM in June 1963

1956年,一项国会法案将该图书馆移交给公共卫生服务部门,并将其命名为皇冠app官方版. Senators Lister Hill and John F. Kennedy were the driving force behind the bill. Kennedy would see his vision realized in 1962 when, during his presidency, NLM在位于贝塞斯达的美国国立卫生研究院校园内成立, 马里兰.


A National Institution Enters the Computer Age: 1962-Present

Photo of National Library of Medicine in Bethesda National Library of Medicine Building
National Institutes of Health Campus
Bethesda, 马里兰

新的皇冠app官方版于1962年在美国国立卫生研究院设立, on the wooded site of a former golf course. Designed to protect the collection from possible Cold War threats, the building features foot-thick limestone walls, over 50 miles of subterranean bookshelves and a collapsible roof. The computer era has blossomed here, 1968年,李斯特·希尔国家生物医学通讯中心成立, the creation of MEDLINE in the 1970s, 1988年建立了国家生物技术信息中心, the introduction of free MEDLINE in 1997, the creation of consumer-friendly 医疗在线 in 1998, and the introduction of and PubMed Central in 2000, among other developments. 与此同时, 藏书急剧增加,馆际互借申请的数量也随之增加. NLM目前与20多个国家合作,并扩大了对全球消费者和卫生专业人员的推广工作.

Last Reviewed: November 8, 2021